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      02-23-2020, 12:40 PM   #2
tracer bullet
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Drives: '11 135i , '15 X3 35i
Join Date: May 2011
Location: Saint Paul, MN

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Vignetting could be because it's sticking out a bit further than the lens would like, and so you see it encroaching onto the corners a little bit. If it's a zoom lens, and you slightly zoom in, that could prevent it. Or of course crop it out later. Do you have it stacked on another filter, pushing it too far out?

For longer exposures, yes you'd need to go up in stops. You're on the right track with low ISO and smaller aperture to force a longer exposure to let in light. But let's say your scene normally needs... 1/250 sec for the shot. Another stop would be 1/125, then 1/60. 1/30, 1/15, 1/8, 1/4, etc. Each of those is a stop. So you can see whee if you're looking to really draw that out to full seconds or something, you need to go a pretty high # of stops to get there.

Hope that made sense.

I'd look around for examples from pro's who list their gear, and when you see pictures (waterfalls, ocean waves, etc. that you really like, see if they list the ND filter used. Eliminates a little guess work.